Many genetic loci that result in lethality when mutated may also have an essential role in oogenesis. The maternal effects of EMS-induced zygotic lethal mutations at 48 loci were examined using the dominant female-sterile technique. Three categories of effects were found. In the first group (13 out of 48), no maternal effect was detected. The second set (20 out of 48) exhibited maternal effects on oogenesis, embryogenesis, or both. In 13 of this last group, only a few eggs were produced before a progressive deterioration of development occurred. It is suggested that perdurance of the wild-type gene product could produce this result. The third group (15 out of 48) produced cell lethality in germ-line clones, an effect that may be related to their role in indispensable cell functions. Three loci were found which, in germ-line clones, produced embryonic phenotypes that resemble maternal effect mutations. The implications of this study for the genetic analysis of early development are discussed.
Using the newly isolated, germ line-dependent dominant female-sterile mutation Fs(1)K1237, we have characterized the germ line or somatic line dependence of 25 X-linked recessive female-sterile mutations. Since Fs(1)K1237/+ females fail to lay eggs, only germ line cells which lose Fs(1)K1237 as a result of X-ray-induced mitotic recombination are capable of producing eggs. Such recombination events will render genes on the homologous chromosome homozygous. If this chromosome carries a recessive female-sterile mutation, the fertility will be restored only if the altered function is not required in the germ line. Using this test, we have classified 25 recessive female-sterile mutations: 12 affect germ line function, 12 affect somatic line function, and one gave an ambiguous result for which an explanation is proposed. For a few of the somatic line-dependent mutants, we found that some eggs derived from germ line clones showed the same phenotype as eggs laid by females homozygous for the recessive female-sterile mutation. These results are discussed in terms of a coincident production of clones in the follicle cells.